MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs with essential roles in gene expression. Together, miRNAs regulate the expression of >60% of genes and deficiencies in their maturation, as well as their levels within cells, have been shown to drive several diseases including cancer. MicroRNAs are transcribed as longer transcripts, the maturation of which requires the adequate RNA folding and the precise cleavage of DROSHA and DICER1. This processing is aided by more than 180 RNA-binding proteins. The resulting products are mature microRNAs that provide specificity to Argonaute (AGO), a key component in RNA silencing.
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